The HI4103 cadmium ion selective electrode is a complete potentiometric cell that contains a silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) reference housed within a PEI plastic body with a potassium nitrate electrolyte. The internal elements are isolated from the sample by a compressed cadmium sulfide/silver sulfide sensing membrane.
Hanna’s solid state combination ISEs are designed with a cone style junction. The skirted cone geometry of the sensor forms the liquid junction with the test solution at the tip of the junction cone, producing a highly stable reference potential and consistent flow rates of electrolyte into the solution. A simple press of the top portion of the ISE makes it easy to empty the electrolyte fill solution and replace when necessary.
For the HI4103 to measure cadmium accurately, it is important that the ionic strength of the standards and sample be adjusted to a high and constant value with the HI4000-00 ionic strength adjuster (ISA) solution. The ISA ensures that the activity coefficient is constant so the concentration of free cadmium ions can be measured. Measuring all solutions with a constant ionic strength reduces the margin of error between measurements. The HI4103 cadmium solid state ISE can measure from 0.1µM (0.01 mg/L) to 0.1M (11,200 mg/L).
Conversion Table for Cd2+
|moles/L (M) to ppm (mg/L)||1.124 x 105|
|ppm (mg/L) to M (moles/L)||8.896 x 10-6|
Fixed Sensing Modules – Combination solid state ISEs are electrodes that detect free ions in a solution. The highly insoluble, compressed sensing pellet is attached to the electrode by a fixed sensing module for ease of use.
Durable PEI Body – The probe body is composed of durable polyetherimide (PEI) plastic.
BNC Connection – The HI4103 has a universal BNC connector for easy connection to any benchtop meter with a female BNC probe input.
Theory of Operation
A solid state sensor electrode develops a voltage due to the ion exchange that occurs between the solution and the inorganic membrane. An equilibrium occurs due to the highly limited solubility of the membrane material in the sample. When the ionic strength of the solution is fixed by the addition of ISA, the voltage is proportional to the concentration of free ions in solution.